Academic Paper: Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas, The Founders of Apologetics


Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas, The Founders of Apologetics

by Wilson Campbell


16-LS-THEO-6305-N1: Christian History & Heritage

Dr. Michael Whiting

Dallas Baptist University, Dallas, Texas

July 7, 2016


Throughout the history of the Church, there have been men who have been raised up in the Holy Spirit to defend the faith we as Christians have in God through sound reason and powerful argument. These men have followed in the guidance of scripture in 1 Peter 3:15 where we are told “…always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you…” In the original Greek of this passage, the word “Defense” comes from the Greek “Apologia,” meaning a “verbal defense,” or “speech in defense.”[1]­­ It is from this term that they have earned the title of “Apologists.” They are the men who have given the intellectual and philosophical arguments that have both helped form the Theology of the Christian religion and defend it against the criticisms of those outside of the faith. Though their arguments and opponents have changed over the centuries, the Apologist still survives today as some of the strongest representatives of Christianity and Evangelism in ministries around the World.

This will be a review of the two most significant Apologists in the Early and Medieval church periods.  The first being that of Saint Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD), whose apologetic stood against the views of the early heretics who stood as threats to the purity and clarity of Christ’s Message to mankind. His work stood as the origin of apologetic thought and approach that carries forward into modern times, and is respected by both Catholic and Protestant alike. The second being Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274 AD) who, during the Medieval period, fought to defend the use of philosophy and reason in the defense of Christianity against those within Christian circles who would argue against it. Aquinas would not only defend the Christian belief, but also stood to defend the very value and worth of Apologists to Christianity by defending the use of reason to attain knowledge of God. Together, these early Apologists both solidified the very theological backbone of Christianity itself, as well as form what it truly meant to be an Apologist in faith and practice.

The Early Church (100-500 AD)

As Christianity began to spread across the Roman empire (due to the hard work of the Apostles, chiefly Paul) the Church began to form its own structure and a hierarchy of representatives and leadership came to be. The Canon of scripture began to form as the epistles and letters started to be assembled, copied, and distributed to the various gatherings of Christians across all of Rome. By the year 200, what is known as the Muratorian Canon (for the publisher of the discovered list, Lodovico Antonio Muratorian in 1740) became the list of authoritative scripture utilized by the early bishops of the Church.[2] During this period there were many false teachers that began to misrepresent the teachings of Christ, and though they may have utilized this early collection of letters, they gave false teachings from them. These became known as “Heretics,” as their teachings were deviations from established Theological truths. There were many individuals across early Christendom whose teachings were truly heretical, while others were questioned on their views about subjects of debate between respected bishops across all of Rome.

The Environment of the Early Church period.

After the council of Nicea in 325 AD, a great deal of such areas of debate were mitigated, and with the establishment of the Nicene Creed, there was some unity amongst the body of believers around the Mediterranean. However, there were still areas of disagreement between Bishops, and there remained many small groups of people who formed sub-sects of the newly formed Christian way. One of these groups was formed around a man named Pelagius, who lived during the early 5th century. Pelagius is believed to have been from Britain and from some form of an educated background, perhaps through a monastery, and resided in Rome among the Christian Aristocracy of the time who supported him. [3] Pelagius was strongly against the view of determinism, where humanity begins with sin from Adam, and was a strong supporter of views of human free will. This was during a time where the doctrine of original sin had not yet been fully formed. Through the movement that formed around Pelagius’ views, the doctrine of original sin began to form and be solidified as his views were countered by Bishops across the Mediterranean.

The views of Pelagius were prominent in the first decade of the 5th century, and may have formed out of the influence of the Manichaeism issue of Tradux peccati, or the inheritance of sin. [4] There were a great number of early theologians who may have influenced Pelagius’ arguments against the view of original sin, including Rufinus of Syria, Caelestius, and others. [5] However, his particular view on the subject was strongly fought against by Augustine of Hippo. Pelagius held to the goodness of creation, that man has certain characteristics and strengths that make man naturally good, upon which he establishes his claims against the heredity of sin. [6] He was staunchly against the claims of Augustine and Jerome in the views of pre-determinism, and Pelagius even claimed that the views of Augustine were in line with the heresy of Manichean fatalism. [7] In spite of his personally respected view on the goodness of man and the goodness of grace, Pelagius became declared a heretic and was excommunicated by Pope Innocent I, and by 416 AD, much of the tenets of his views were ousted by councils in Carthage, and became labeled as “Pelagianism.”

Augustine of Hippo is perhaps one of the most well-known Theologians and Apologists of the early church period. Augustine started out as a man persuaded by the Manichaean sect he came to know while a young man in Tagaste (modern day Souk Ahras, Algeria). This particular sect argued in favor of the base material dualism and a freedom in philosophy with a focus on natural, scientific explanations for all things. [8] After a period of questioning those who followed this philosophy, even the very Bishop of this particular sect, Faustus, Augustine found it to lack any legitimacy within science, and turned from it at that point. [9] He later moved to Rome where he opened a school of Rhetoric, and later came to know the Bishop Ambrose, and through him became turned to Christ and the Scriptures after a period of skepticism, Neo-Platonic philosophy, and other areas. After a time, he traveled to Cassisiacum, having been convinced of the truth of the Scripture, to spend his life seeking the truth. [10]

The Pelagian Views of Free Will and Against Original Sin

After becoming of the Bishop of Hippo, and earning his title of “Doctor of Grace,” what became known as the “Pelagian Controversy,” began. It revolved primarily around the differences between the Pelagius view which denied Original Sin, and Augustine’s defense of this as derived from the view of predestination. Pelagius’s view of the goodness of man is derived from his understanding of scripture, in that man was created by God as good. That God had created man with free will, Pelagius writes in his Letter to Demetrias “You should not think that humanity was not created truly good because it is capable of evil and the impetuosity of nature is not bound by necessity to unchangeable good.” [11] Pelagius truly believed in both the goodness of man and the goodness of grace, and that both are necessary to lead a moral life. [12] He also believed that man could achieve righteousness of his own free will. He believed that God created man to be free to act and not under any compulsion, leaving him free to make his own decisions. Pelagius felt that to believe that man was not created good is blasphemy and acts as though God seeks not our salvation, but our punishment and damnation. [13] While Pelagius himself was a well-respected monk, many had contention with him on the implications of such points, where his position becomes stated as “Adam is created mortal and would have died even if he had never sinned.” [14] This is where the major theological debate was focused between Pelagius and Augustine.

Augustine’s Apology

Augustine’s views on Original Sin became one of the founding theological tenets of the forming universal church. It was a view held by the majority at the time which Pelagius often referred to as the “Ignorant Crowd,” [15] or the “Ignorant Majority.” [16] The debate between Pelagius and Augustine went so deep as to contain contention regarding the very definition of Sin itself. [17] However, for Augustine, and the majority of the church of the time, this challenging of the theology of Original Sin was not tolerable. Augustine gave much respect to many of the points that Pelagius brought to bear, including the issues of heredity of sin after baptism (where baptism is to remove one’s sin, how so then, after baptism, does one’s children inherit sin?), and matters concerning sin as an act. [18] However, he gave a strong defense to his views of Original Sin in his work On Nature and Grace (De Natura et Gratia). With regards to the view of Pelagius about man being capable of achieving righteousness without the death of Christ on the cross, Augustine quite pointedly shuts it down by logically following from Galatians 2:21, “…for if righteousness could be gained through the law, Christ died for nothing!” he continues, “If righteousness comes by nature, then Christ died in vain.” [19]

In counter to Pelagius’s point regarding his view of Adam being created mortal and able to die even if he had not sinned, Augustine gives an initial acceptance of the notion of man being created good. He acknowledges that “All good qualities, no doubt, which it still possesses…” [20] however, he points out that “…the flaw, which darkens and weakens all those natural goods…it has not contracted from its blameless Creator-but from that original sin, which it committed by free will.” [21] Augustine continues by defending the hereditary nature of sin, by saying that the Grace of God, given freely, is not received by those in infancy who “…are not yet able to hear, or because they are unwilling to obey…” through infant baptism are “indeed justly condemned.” [22] He continues through this to defend his view of the condemnation of all (Through the passing on of Original Sin) so that all may receive this grace, and points to any view that would revoke such condemnation suggest that none are worthy of such grace, given freely by God. So we see Augustine’s argument against Pelagius’s primary views of the goodness of man, and man’s freewill alone being able to achieve righteousness (though some argue that this was an extreme taken by later follower’s of Pelagius, and not the man himself [23]) being founded on the basis of Christ’s death on the cross being made mute if this were to be true.


The eventual result of these debates between Augustine and Pelagius established the doctrine of Original Sin, thus refining the identity of the newly rising Universal or “Catholic” Church. After Alaric and the Visigoth’s threats against Rome, Pelagius found his way to Palestine where he found himself facing Augustine and his counterpart, Jerome, about 409 AD. [24] He was brought before a synod in Jerusalem after charges of heresy were brought against him in 415 AD, however he was acquitted at this point. It was after this that Augustine wrote his On Nature and Grace to counter Pelagius’s On Nature, and as the debate continued, Pelagius found himself once again separated from the church, as pope Innocent I excommunicated him, and by 418 AD, so much was written against his views, that he disappeared. His followers, Celestius and Nestorius, continued his work, though many saw them as taking his views to great extremes. This resulted in the Third General Council in Ephesus (431 AD) condemning the views of Pelagianism, and establishing the tenets of Original Sin, Pre-determinism, and the rejection of righteousness without grace as pillars of the now formalized Catholic Church.

The Medieval Period (1000 – 1500 AD)

The Environment of the Medieval Period.

After the times of Augustine, the entire landscape of the Roman Empire began to change significantly. As the church grew and Roman Catholicism became the “established church” of the Roman Empire, there formed a “Great Schism” that divided the church between the Roman West, and the Byzantine East. The coronation of Charlemagne in 800 AD marked a turning point in Christendom, as the Frankish rulers came to act in cooperation with the bishops of Rome. [25] As time went on, the power of the Pope in the West came to a head as wars with the rising Muslim Empire were fought through the crusades, resulting in conflict between Western and Eastern churches. After multiple efforts to try to reconcile both the East and West, while trying to manage wars with the Muslims across the southern Mediterranean through the crusades, the split between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy sadly became severe. Constantine XI who was the Byzantinian ruler in 1453 who supported reconciliation between the two divided churches, was killed in battle, and resulted in the Muslim takeover of Constantinople, thus setting the Great Schism of the West and East churches in firm place for centuries to come. [26]

As Western Christendom moved north, Most of the North African church had been destroyed as territory was lost to the Muslims through the new millennium. [27] In spite of these loses that spread as far east as Afghanistan, the movement of Christianity to the north flourished. Kingdoms were established across northern Europe, including Denmark, England, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and Scotland. [28] It was during this time that literacy and urbanization began to grow amongst the populations of the newly developing nations, with the Roman Pope as the head of Christendom. After multiple crusades, much of the growing church and the European nations that supported the crusades were crippled financially. Though there were few successes, there was much gained from the multiple crusades into the Holy Land, including the rediscovery of the texts of the Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. From Charlemagne through to the Council of Trent (1545-63 AD) Scholasticism grew and the church was at the head of education across all of Christendom. [29] It was within this environment, where the Pope was established as the head of the church, a movement towards the pursuit of truth through scholasticism and the application of reason, and the growing church across Europe and multiple countries and fiefdoms, that we see the formation of Apologetics emerge, and the use of reason in defense of the faith come to fruition with Thomas Aquinas. However, even as this great step forward began, dissenters emerged arguing against its use, and thus emerged the debate between faith and reason.

The Apology of John Duns Scotus

John Duns Scotus was raised as a Christian in Berwickshire, Scotland, and after a time of difficulty in his studies, tradition holds that his prayers to the Mother of God were answered, and he was blessed with great intelligence. [30] He entered the Novitiate of the Order of Friars Minor in Dumfries, Scotland and by 1291, he was ordained as a priest and began to travel England and France to study in philosophy and theology. [31] After he was blessed by the Mother Mary (said to have been handed the baby Jesus who embraced him fondly[32]) while at the Oxford Convent in 1299, he became a professor at Oxford. After being exiled by the King in 1303 for refusing to go against the Pope, he went to France where he pursued his Doctorate at the University of Paris. He had earned the title of “Subtle Doctor,” due to his ability to make quite refined distinctions during theological argumentation, earning him a great deal of notoriety and respect throughout the Theological circles of the time.[33] He is most well-known for his defense of the Immaculate Conception, which he covers quite thoroughly in his work On the Fittingness of the Immaculate Conception. An excerpt from this work demonstrates the clarity of his thought and how well he presents his argument, where here he defends the Immaculate Conception and Mary’s lack of sin as the Mother of God.

“But God does not undergo offense because of some experience in Himself, but only because of sin in the soul of a creature. Hence, Christ does not placate the Trinity most perfectly for the sin to be contracted by the sons of Adam is He does not prevent the Trinity from being offended in someone, and if the soul of some child of Adam does not contract such a sin; and thus it is possible that a child of Adam not have such a sin.” [34]

Throughout his life, John Duns Scotus created many works, one of which was his work Ordinatio where John gives an impressive defense of faith over reason. This discussion still remains a point of debate to this very day, where the secular world argues that faith is without evidence and as it is not based in reason, whatever conclusions are drawn from it can’t be true. John Duns Scotus gives a brilliant defense of faith, but he comes into contention with Thomas Aquinas on the differences between faith and reason, and their use in understanding God and the beliefs of Christianity. [35] He places the controversy in his own words by stating…

“…there seems to be a controversy among philosphers and theologians. And philosophers hold that the perfection of nature, and deny supernatural perfection; on the other hand, theologians recognize the defect of nature and the necessity of grace and supernatural perfection.” [36]

This is where we begin to see John Duns Scotus split off with Thomas Aquinas regarding the importance of human reason when it comes to knowledge. In his Ordinatio, John sets the argument of the philosopher as coming from the view that if there is no need for supernatural aid, then it isn’t needed to understand the world through the senses (deficient though they are) then neither is it needed for the intellect (a far superior faculty). [37] From this basic understanding of the philosopher’s argument against revelation, or supernatural causes, as the source of knowledge, John begins his defense of revelation, and the importance of faith.

His first principle reason against the opinion of the philosophers (of which he includes Thomas Aquinas) he explains that “… to everyone acting through cognition there is necessary a distinct cognition of one’s own end.” [38] in other words, when we are using our senses and intellect to understand something in the world around us, we have some ‘end’ in mind that we are seeking. When we go to learn about something, we are aware of the end we are seeking before we begin, and it is our appetite for that end that drives our study. So when it comes to matters of man’s own end, man can not know what his own end is from natural things. Given this, it is “…necessary for him some supernatural cognition concerning this.” [39] He continues on this point by stating that if man seeks by his own cognizance his own ends naturally, that we can not know for sure that that end is fitting. [40] At the end of all this, John Duns Scotus sets out his argument in three principles, arriving at the conclusion that divine revelation is necessary and that the use of scientific discovery and sense-experience is not sufficient. It is not possible that man can come to knowledge through reason alone of union with God as the end without having heard the Gospel, thus giving his reason against the raw intellect of man being the source of knowledge and all that is necessary to belief in God. [41] This is where John Duns Scotus gives his defense of faith in Divine Revelation as the source of knowledge, but where others would disagree, as such a belief leaves one open to scrutiny based on the view of faith lacking evidence, which is the current debate of our own time.

The Apology of Thomas Aquinas

Where John Duns Scotus supported the Franciscan view of the rejection of Greek Philosophy, Thomas Aquinas countered in the support of it. After his birth in 1225 at Roccasecca, Thomas was raised a Christian through his education at the Abbey of Montecassino. He was moved to the University of Naples after conflict arose in the area and it was there that he joined the Dominican order of Preachers. After a move to Cologne and exposure to Albert the Great, Thomas was exposed to Aristotle, whose ancient teachings had a profound influence on his views of Greek Philosophy. [42] After achieving his Masters he was a member of the faculty of Theology at the University of Paris, and traveled there after with the papal court until his return to Paris to address the matters pertaining to what is called “Latin Averroism” and “Heterodox Aristotelianism.” [43] Thomas Aquinas’s greatest work as it regards philosophy and human knowledge as it addresses the question of philosophy in acquiring knowledge was his Summa Theologica. Much of what John Duns Scotus writes is counter to the writing of Thomas Aquinas on this subject as stated in his Summa Theologica.

Thomas Aquinas held to the value of revelation and faith in as much as John Duns Scotus did. He addresses specifically the question of whether, besides philosophy, is there any need of other doctrine or practice in the pursuit of knowledge? He, like John Duns Scotus, values scripture and the Revelation of God for man to know the greater things above that which is reasoned by man from worldly sources. He summarizes the objections to Revelation as doctrine as “…for man should not seek to know what is above reason,” and “…so that there is a part of philosophy called theology, or divine science…Therefore, besides philosophical science, there is no need of any further knowledge.” [44] Throughout much of his writing, science is used, it would seem, as an alternative for “knowledge,” regarding any particular thing. This is where it has been argued that there is Philosophical Science, and within philosophical science, there is the sub-section of divine science (Theology). To this point, Thomas Aquinas counters this point by providing an interesting point. Since scripture itself is inspired by God, it would not be possible that man could come to it through the use of philosophical science, being derived from nature alone or human reason alone. He sets forth his argument as “Now scripture, inspired of God, is no part of philosophical science, which has been built up by human reason.” [45] Since the Word of God comes from Him alone, then it is obviously understood that there is other knowledge beyond that which philosophical science can produce.

There is much similarity here between John Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas in their defense of Revelation. But where there is disagreement between the two is based on the belief of Thomas Aquinas that God can be attained through natural reason alone. [46] Thomas Aquinas introduces his view in his answer to the objections described previously, by stating…

“Hence it was necessary for the salvation of man that certain truths which exceed human reason should be made known to him by divine revelation. Even as regards those truths about God which human reason could have discovered, it was necessary that man should be taught by a divine revelation; because the truth about God such as reason could discover, would only be known by a few, and that after a long time, and with the admixture of many errors.” (italics mine) [47]

This became the basis of much on John Duns Scotus’ objection to Thomas Aquinas. Where Aquinas holds a certain dependence on the fitness and certainty that is found in the sense-experience basis of philosophical science, Scotus holds that Faith is also a factor in the discovery of truth. Though Thomas Aquinas became the most well-known and quoted “Common Doctor of the Church,” [48] this particular belief of Aquinas is what has provided a means of attack for those who criticize Christianity to the present day.


John Duns Scotus gives a brilliant defense to the importance of faith and the need for revelation when it comes to human knowledge. Thomas Aquinas agrees to such a point, but gave arguments that would put Philosophy in a higher category over Revelation, leading to man being able to come to knowledge of God through reason alone. Many to the present day still argue back and forth to these points, and to from them, to the value of apologetics. The philosophical science itself is held in high regards today, and is the backbone of the atheist movements that we see becoming more and more active. Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus, in their various written works, provide ample demonstration of the usefulness of reason and philosophy in providing a defense of the faith we have in the Lord our God. Along with Augustine, these powerful word-smiths set the foundation for what would become Apologetics. Though understanding philosophy and how to argue within its realm is vitally important to breaking down the barriers that man has put between himself and God, it is important that we remember the necessity of Divine Revelation. It is through God’s Word, his divinely inspired scriptures, that we can come to knowledge of what His ultimate purpose and calling is for each of us.

Outcomes of These Periods

The debates, discussions, and even break downs between the various sides covered in this overview of a few of the major players in apologetics since the early church carry forward even to the present day. As our culture has turned away from accepting the wisdom of those in the past, we see these ancient settled matters re-emerge unto the fore-front of human philosophical and theological debate. We now live in a world where people consider themselves to be smarter or more intelligent than those men and women of the past based squarely on our modern technological advances that they did not have back then. So we begin to see history repeating itself, even on the intellectual and scientific stages that produce some of the most influential statements of our time. We now find ourselves in the present time arguing against the same human wisdom that existed prior to Christ’s time on earth, seeking the wisdom of the founding fathers of the Christian movement to aid us in our defense of the hope that is within us. We must always remember the words of C.S. Lewis, “I believe in Christianity as I believe that the Sun has risen not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else.” [49] As we move out to engage in the spreading of the gospel, we must remember that as we defend the faith we have in Christ, it is He that will give us what we need to do so.

Just as Augustine gave his defense of Original Sin, we too must be able to clearly explain that which makes Christianity. The early fathers on up to Augustine had to do this regularly as “the way” began to spread across the Mediterranean. Even without formal education and training on the subject of Christ, they were able to identify and refine what it meant to be Christian, and we must be able to do the same. Where Thomas Aquinas gives his defense of the use of philosophy as a means to come to know God, we must also remember that God’s revelation to mankind via the gospel and scripture is necessary for others to know the truth. So while we may use philosophical arguments that identify the truth, as all truth belongs to God, we must also provide that revelation to those who have not heard. So while we defend our faith with compassion and care for the one we are speaking to, we must always remember that it is not the individual who converts another to Christ. Our speaking and defense can only tear down the philosophical walls that man puts up that turn him from God. It is the Holy Spirit, working through our transmission of the gospel, that brings them to the realization that Christ is the way, the truth, and the life.



[1] Thayer and Smith. (1999). Greek Lexicon Entry for Apologia. The NAS New Testament Greek Lexicon.

[2] Noll, Mark A. (2012). Turning Points: decisive moments in the history of Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Pgs 28-29.

[3] St. Clair, Craig, (2004). A Heretic Reconsidered Pelagius, Augustine, And Original Sin. School of Theology Seminary Graduate Papers/Theses. Paper 4. Pgs. 2-4 Retrieved from July 8, 2016.

[4] Ibid. pgs. 4-6

[5] Ibid. pg 7

[6] Ibid. pgs 7-8

[7] Riada, Geoffrey. Pelagius: To Demetrias. Library of Theology. Retrieved from July 8, 2016. Pg 3

[8] Herbermann, Charles, G. (2016) St. Augustine of Hippo, The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume 2: Assizes-Browne. Grand Rapids: MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved from July 8, 2016.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Pelagius. IV. Letter to Demetrias. Theological Anthropology. Retrieved from July 9, 2016

[12] Biggs, Charles, R. (2016) Ancient Church history Augustine and Pelagianism.  West Linn, OR: Christian Publication Resource Foundation. Retrieved from July 9, 2016. Pg. 3

[13] Riada, Geoffrey. Pelagius: To Demetrias. Library of Theology. Retrieved from . July 8, 2016

[14] Biggs, Charles, R. (2016) Ancient Church history Augustine and Pelagianism.  West Linn, OR: Christian Publication Resource Foundation. Retrieved from July 9, 2016.

[15] Pelagius. IV. Letter to Demetrias. Theological Anthropology. Retrieved from July 9, 2016. Pg 42

[16]  Riada, Ibid. pg 5

[17] St. Clair, Craig, (2004) A Heretic Reconsidered Pelagius, Augustine, And Original Sin. School of Theology Seminary Graduate Papers/Theses. Paper 4. Retrieved from July 8, 2016. Pg. 9

[18] Ibid. Pg. 10

[19] Schaff, Philip (2016). Chap. 2. Faith in Christ Not Necessary to Salvation, If a Man Without It Can Lead a Righteous Life. St. Augustine: Anti-Pelagian Writings. Grand Rapids: MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved from July, 9 2016.

[20] Schaff, Philip (2016) Chap. 3. Nature was created sound and whole; it was afterwards corrupted by sin. If a Man Without It Can Lead a Righteous Life. St. Augustine: Anti-Pelagian Writings. Grand Rapids: MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved from July, 9 2016.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Riada, Geoffrey. Pelagius: To Demetrias. Library of Theology. Retrieved from July 8, 2016. Pg. 3

[24] Ibid.

[25] Noll, Mark A. (2012) Turning Points: decisive moments in the history of Christianity.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Pgs 100-101.

[26] Ibid. Pgs. 124-125.

[27] Fanning, Don, (2009) Roman Catholic Era Medieval Period. History of Global Missions. Paper 4. Retrieved from July 17, 2016. Pg. 1

[28] Ibid. pg 2

[29] Ibid pg 20-21

[30] The Life of Blessed John Duns Scotus. New Bedford, MA: Marian Fiary of Our Lady Queen of the Seraphic Order. Retrieved from July 17, 2016.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Ibid.

[34] Scotus, John, D. On the Fittingness of the Immaculate Conception. Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts, Boston. Retrieved from July 17, 2016

[35] Elkatip, Sule. (1994). Reason and Faith for Saint Thomas Aquinas and Blessed John Duns Scotus. Washington D.C.: Georgetown university. Retrieved from July 17, 2016

[36] Scotus, John, D. Ordinatio Prologus, First part, On the Necessity of Revealed Doctrine. Westminster, MA: The Franciscan Archive. Retrieved from July 17, 2016. Pg. 4

[37] Elkatip, Sule. (1994). Reason and Faith for Saint Thomas Aquinas and Blessed John Duns Scotus. Washington D.C.: Georgetown university. Retrieved from July 17, 2016

[38] Scotus, John, D. Ordinatio Prologus, First part, On the Necessity of Revealed Doctrine. Westminster, MA: The Franciscan Archive. Retrieved from July 17, 2016 Pg 9

[39] Ibid.

[40] Ibid. Pg 10.

[41] Elkatip, Sule. (1994). Reason and Faith for Saint Thomas Aquinas and Blessed John Duns Scotus. Washington D.C.: Georgetown university. Retrieved from July 17, 2016. Para. 13.

[42] McInerny, Ralph and O’Callaghan, John, (2015). Saint Thomas Aquinas. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved from July 19, 2016

[43] Ibid.

[44] Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Ottawa, Ontario: St. Patrick’s Basilica. Retrieved from July 19, 2016. Pg. 2

[45] Ibid.

[46] Elkatip, Sule. (1994). Reason and Faith for Saint Thomas Aquinas and Blessed John Duns Scotus. Washington D.C.: Georgetown university. Retrieved from July 17, 2016 para. 16.

[47] Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Ottawa, Ontario: St. Patrick’s Basilica. Retrieved from July 19, 2016.

[48] McInerny, Ralph and O’Callaghan, John, (2015). Saint Thomas Aquinas. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved from July 19, 2016

[49] C.S. Lewis, (1962). They Asked For A Paper in Is Theology Poetry? London: Geoffrey Bless. Pgs. 164-165.

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